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An Introduction to Patent Monetization Resources For Corporations and Entrepreneurs

Jul 12 2020 Published by under Uncategorized

For corporations and entrepreneurs seeking to monetize their un- or under-utilized IP rights for the first time, it can be difficult to know where to begin. The patent monetization market is not yet mature and, as with other emerging marketplaces, no established methodologies and few experts exist to guide owners through the process. Today, there are as many as 17 different business models used. More will likely spring up as the market continues to evolve, even while some of the current models will certainly fall away. With such a range of options, it is not surprising that those seeking to sell their patent rights may be confused about what path to take. This article is intended to provide an overview of ways that corporate and individual IP owners can most effectively monetize their rights in today’s market. The models discussed in this article were chosen because they are currently the most common. Significantly, due to the great variability in patents and the individual needs of IP owners, the best model for a particular person or organization might actually one that is not discussed here.  Nonetheless, it is hoped that after reading this, a corporation or entrepreneur seeking to sell their rights for the first time will be better able to understand and execute on the opportunities and challenges present today in the patent monetization market.

Thinking of Selling a Patent Directly to a Corporation Without an Intermediary? Forget About It Most IP owners assume that it is possible to sell their rights directly to a company that might play or seek to play in the product or technology space covered by the patent. This is rarely the case, however. When I was employed as a senior attorney in a consumer products company, it was corporate policy to reject all unsolicited offers to purchase or license patents that came into the organization. Thus, an owner did not stand a chance to get their rights sold to my company. This absolute prohibition on unsolicited ideas is not the policy at all companies, but, in truth, few companies today actively seek to acquire products and technology from outside sources (although this is starting to change with the drive toward open innovation at many companies). Thus, even if a patent is a perfect fit for a company’s offerings, most organizations will nonetheless prefer to pass on a purchase opportunity because external acquisition is not part of their technology development model. It is therefore doubtful that most patent owners can hope to successfully sell their rights directly to a corporation because the latter is not in the business of buying patents generally, and specifically not from individual owners.

  Aggregators: Buyers of Patents if a Patent Owner Can Get a Foot in Their Door In recent years, companies have emerged that hold business models centered on the buying of patents held by others. Well known aggregators today include Intellectual Ventures, RPX and Allied Security Trust. Each of these companies has a different reason that it seeks to acquire patents, but each can serve as a great resource for owners seeking to sell their IP rights in certain technology areas. Nonetheless, there are many more patent owners seeking to sell their rights than existing aggregator buying opportunities. As a result, if an owner obtains a “no” answer, how does he know it is because his patent is worth nothing to the aggregator or whether it’s because he did not know the right person to get his rights in front of at the aggregator company? For most IP owners, especially those participating in the monetization market for the first time, patent aggregators will not serve as a likely direct purchaser of their rights.  

Brokers: Facilitors of Patent Sales, For a Price Brokers such as ThinkFire, IPotential and IP Transactions Group can assist IP owners in presenting their patent to a likely buyer, the most likely of which are patent aggregators, non-practicing entities (“NPE’s”) and, sometimes, corporations. By leveraging their relationships and reputations, brokers effectively serve as “filters” for potential patent acquirers to streamline and improve the quality of patent buying opportunities.  Put simply, patent buyers trust their patent brokers to “separate the wheat from the chaff” to make it easier for them to identify and act on good patent buying opportunities.  A broker who is trusted by a patent buyer can thus present the latter with a buying opportunity that the buyer would not have given a second glance to if the same patent had been offered to them outside of the broker-buyer relationship.   There is a substantial cost to hiring a broker, however–typically about 25 % of the total sale price. Patent brokers also require exclusivity. Thus, when a patent owner selects a particular broker to represent him in the sale, he must trust that the broker will find the best deal. I nonetheless believe that the knowledge and expertise available with a good broker can allow a patent owner to obtain a final purchase price for his rights that more than justifies the broker fee. In particular, the best brokers maintain a large network of potential purchasers of patents, including aggregators, NPE’s and, in some cases, corporations that have expressed an interest in buying third party IP rights.  

I believe such broad networks serve a critical function in improving the efficiency of the monetization market by possibly raising the final purchase price.  When a patent is offered through a quality broker, he will ensure that each party participating in the process also knows who else is being offered the opportunity. Such transparency could also result in an increase in the final purchase price when one potential purchaser seeks to ensure that another potential purchaser not acquire that same right. For example, a corporation might increase its offer to prevent an NPE from obtaining that patent for the purpose of bringing suit against the corporation. This scenario means that those most interested in acquiring the patent will bring their best offer to the table, a fact which should improve the final price paid.   A further benefit of selling through a good broker is that they will typically conduct market analysis of the rights to set a rationally-based entry level price. Specifically, the broker will set the price based upon what comparable patents have been sold for in the past. These figures normally are not public, so a broker with several sales under his belt will likely set a more accurate initial sale price by virtue of the fact that he is privy to information that allows him to do so. Notably, even an experienced broker might incorrectly estimate the likely floor price, but when the patent is offered to many likely buyers, the market will typically act to reset the price to one more acceptable to potential buyers.    

Beware of Finders Who Say They are Brokers A significant problem with many people who hold themselves out as patent brokers is that some are not “brokers” at all. Rather, they are “finders” for aggregators or other buyers of patents such as NPE’s (but likely not corporations). Like regular brokers, these finders maintain relationships with likely buyers. When accepting a patent for sale to a potential buyer, the finder likely already knows whether it will be purchased by its contact. In this scenario, the finder actually does little to earn his 25% fee other than maintain a relationship with the ultimate purchaser. Moreover, many of these brokers actually “double dip” because they obtain a fee from the purchaser for bringing the opportunity to them, as opposed to another potential buyer. The finder thus might hold divided loyalties: should they try to maximize the price obtained for his client’s patent when they might never see an opportunity from that seller again, or should they keep the price reasonable so they don’t ruin their relationship with their buyer to whom they might bring several buying opportunities to each year?   Clearly, this scenario is rife with questionable ethics, but the reality of the current monetization market is that no licensing is required for someone to call himself a “patent broker,” and the rule is definitely “buyer beware.” As things stand in today’s unregulated broker market, the best way to find a quality patent broker is to seek referrals from someone who understands the market and/or who has successfully sold patents through a broker in the past.   

Patent Auctions: Selling in the Open to the Highest Bidder The final common vehicle for selling patent rights is the public auction setting. Today, the most prevalent auction is conducted by Ocean Tomo, which currently holds 2 auctions each year. Ocean Tomo is very selective about what patents it takes into each auction, a fact that limits the ability of many patent owners to participate in this model. Ocean Tomo obtains a fee from the seller and the buyer, and it is my understanding that the net fee amounts to approximately 25 % paid to the auction house. While I have not personally been involved in an auction, I have heard mixed things from people who have participated as both buyers and sellers in these auctions. My sense is that an auction allows one to sell his patent in a transparent setting where the price is set by competitive bidding. This can be good when a patent is desired by multiple parties who are influenceable by the “heat” of a public auction process to increase their bids to result in a higher price for the seller.   In my view, one downside of the open auction process is that all participants know the price being offered, a fact that can lead to a lower final sale price if a patent does not garner excitement from the participants. This view was borne out in the most recent (April 2009) Ocean Tomo auction which was almost universally considered a failure. Buyers were lacking and, as a result, not only did few patents sell, the tenor of the auction itself was said to be very quiet and unexcited. This lack of enthusiasm from the auction participants no doubt reduced the overall success of the auction itself.   In contrast, in a private auction–such as that effectively set up when a quality broker sells a patent into a large network of potential buyers–the lack of transparency can result in a higher final price because the participants know who has been provided the opportunity to purchase but not the amount they have offered (if at all). A further possible downside to a public auction is that one can only sell his patent to someone who shows up to participate in the auction. With a broker-conducted private auction, however, someone who may not actively be seeking to buy a patent at that time will be presented with the opportunity to buy. Thus, the number of potential buyers can be expanded with the use of a broker.  

It’s as Clear as Mud Now, Right? As noted at the outset of this article, the IP monetization market is only just now emerging as a viable way to obtain value from un- or under-utilized assets. In view of this, most patent owners just starting into will be confused about how to proceed in a manner that maximizes the price obtained. If one owns patent rights and seeks to sell them today, it is my recommendation that he learn as much as possible about the process. And, as with many business situations, checking references and seeking recommendations from those with experience as patent sellers and counselors to IP owners will be critical to success in monetization.  Personally, I am looking forward to the day when more openness exists in the marketplace so that patent owners can better gauge the quality and qualifications of those participants in the process.               

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Pcm In Textiles

Jul 12 2020 Published by under Uncategorized

Phase Change Materials (PCM) in Textiles

In textile industry, protection from extreme environmental conditions is a very crucial requirement. Clothing that protects us from water, extreme cold, intensive heat, open fire, high voltage, propelled bullets, toxic chemicals, nuclear radiations, biological toxins, etc are some of the illustrations.

Such clothing is utilized as sportswear, defense wear, firefighting wear, bulletproof jackets and other professional wear. Textile products can be made more comfortable when the properties of the textile materials can adjust with all types of environments.

At present, for fulfilling the above requirement Phase Change Materials (PCM) is one such intelligent material. It absorbs, stores or discharges heat in accordance with the various changes in temperature and is more often applied to manufacture the smart textiles.

Phase Change Materials

‘Phase Change’ is the process of going from one stat to another, e.g. from solid to liquid. Any material that experiences the process of phase change is named as Phase Change Materials (PCM).

Such materials collect, discharge or absorb heat as they oscillate between solid and liquid form. They discharge heat as they transform to a solid state and absorb as they go back to a liquid state. There are three basic phases of matter solid, liquid and gas, but others like crystalline, colloid, glassy, amorphous and plasma phases are also considered to exist.

This fundamental phenomenon of science was initially developed and used for building space suits for astronauts for the US Space Program. These suits kept the astronauts warm in the black void of space and cool in the solar glare. Phase Change Materials are compounds, which melt and solidify at specific temperatures and correspondingly are able to retain or discharge large amounts of energy.

The storage of thermal energy by changing the phase of a material at a constant temperature is classified as ‘latent heat’, i.e., changing from a liquid state to a solid state. When a PCM experiences a phase change, a huge amount of energy is needed. The most significant characteristic of latent heat is that it involves the transfer of much larger amounts of energy than sensible heat transfer.

Quiet a few of these PCMs change phases within a temperature range just above and below human skin temperature. This characteristic of some substances is used for making protective all-season outfits, and for abruptly changing environment. Fibre, fabric and foam with built-in PCMs store the warmth of body and then release it back to the body, as the body requires it. Since the procedure of phase change is dynamic, the materials are continually shifting from solid to liquid and back according to the physical movement of the body and outside temperature. Furthermore, Phase Change Materials are used, but they never get used up.

Phase Change Materials are waxes that have the distinctive capacity to soak and emit heat energy without altering the temperature. These waxes include eicosane, octadecane, Nonadecane, heptadecane and hexadecane. They all possess different freezing and melting points and when mixed in a microcapsule it will accumulate heat energy and release heat energy and maintain their temperature range of 30-34°C, which is very comfortable for the body.

The amount of heat absorbed by a PCM in the actual phase change with the amount of heat absorbed in an ordinary heating procedure can be evaluated by taking water as a PCM. The melting of ice into water leads to the absorption of latent heat of nearly 335 J/g. If water is further boiled, a sensible heat of only 4 J/g is absorbed, while the temperature increases by one degree. Hence, the latent heat absorption in the phase change from ice into water is about 100 times greater than the sensible heat absorption.

How to assimilate PCMs in fabrics?

The micro encapsulated PCM can be combined with woven, non woven or knitted fabrics.

The capsules can be added to the fabric in various ways such as:

Microcapsules: Microcapsules of various shapes – round, square and triangular within fibres at the polymer stage. The PCM microcapsules are permanently fixed within the fibre structure during the wet spinning procedure of fibre manufacture. Micro encapsulation gives a softer hand, greater stretch, more breathability and air permeability to the fabrics.

Matrix coating during the finishing process: The PCM microcapsules are embedded in a coating compound like acrylic, polyurethane, etc, and are applied to the fabric. There are many coating methods available like knife-over-roll, knife-over-air, pad-dry-cure, gravure, dip coating and transfer coating.

Foam dispersion: Microcapsules are mixed into a water-blown polyurethane foam mix and these foams are applied to a fabric in a lamination procedure, where the water is removed from the system by the drying process.

Body and clothing systems

The needed thermal insulation of clothing systems mainly depends on the physical activity and on the surrounding conditions such as temperature and relative humidity. The amount of heat produced by humans depends a lot on the physical activity and can differ from 100W while resting to over 1000W during maximum physical performance.

Specially, during the cooler seasons (approx 0°C), the suggested thermal insulation is defined in order to make sure that the body is adequately warm when resting. At extreme activity, which is often a case with winter sports, the body temperature rises with enhanced heat production. To make this increase within a certain limit, the body perspires in order to withdraw energy from the body by evaporative cooling. If the thermal insulation of the clothing is decreased during physical activity, a part of the generated heat can be removed by convection, thus the body is not needed expected to perspire so much.

The quality of insulation in a garment in terms of heat and cold will be widely managed by the thickness and density of its component fabrics. High thickness and low density make insulation better. It is observed in many cases that thermal insulation is offered by air gaps between the garment layers.

However, the external temperature also influences the effectiveness of the insulation. The more extreme the temperature, be it very high or very low, the less effective the insulation becomes. Thus, a garment designed for its capability to protect against heat or cold is chosen by its wearer on the expectation of the climate in which the garment is to be worn.

Though, a garment produced from a thick fabric will have more weight, and the freedom of movement of the wearer will be restricted. Clearly then a garment designed from an intelligent fabric, whose nature can change according the external temperature, can offer superior protection. However, such a garment must be comfortable for the wearer.

Temperature change effect of PCMs

PCM microcapsules can create small, transitory heating and cooling effects in garment layers when the temperature of the layers reaches the PCM transition temperature. The effect of phase change materials on the thermal comfort of protective clothing systems is likely to be highest when the wearer is frequently going through temperature transients (ie, going back and forth between a warm and cold environment) or from time to time touching or handling cold objects. The temperature of the PCM garment layers must vary frequently for the buffering effect to continue.

The most obvious example is changing of water into ice at 0° and to steam at 100°. There are many products that change phase near body temperature and are now being integrated in fibres and laminates, or coating substrates, that will alter phase at or near body temperature and so support the equilibrium of the body temperature and keep it more constant. It is for athletes in extreme conditions and people who are involved in extreme sports such as mountaineering and trekking. It is going to be used in industrial applications where people are very mobile, for example, in and out of cool rooms.

Effects on fabrics

When the condensed PCM is heated to the melting point, it absorbs heat energy as it moves from a solid state to a liquid state. This phase change produces a short-term cooling effect in the clothing layers. The heat energy may come from the body or from a warm environment. Once the PCM has totally melted the storage of heat stops

If the PCM garment is worn in a cold environment where the temperature is below the PCM’s freezing point and the fabric temperature drops below the transition temperature, the micro encapsulated liquid PCM will come back to a solid state, generating heat energy and a momentary warming effect. The developers assert that this heat exchange makes a buffering effect in clothing, minimize changes in skin temperature and continue the thermal comfort of the wearer.

The clothing layer(s) consisting PCMs must go through the transition temperature range before the PCMs change phase and either produce or absorb heat. Therefore, the wearer has to make some effort for the temperature of the PCM fabric to change. PCMs are transient phenomena. They have no effect in steady state thermal environment.

Active microclimate cooling systems need batteries, pumps, circulating fluids and latest control devices to give satisfactory body cooling, but their performance can be adjusted and made to continue for long period of time. They are, however, costly and complicated. Present passive microclimate devices use latent phase change; either by liquid to gas evaporation of water (Hydroweave), a solid to liquid phase shift by a cornstarch/water gel, or with a paraffin that is contained in plastic bladders.

The liquid evaporation garment is cheaper, but will only give minimum or short-term cooling in the high humid environment found in protective clothing. They must also be re-wetted to revitalize the garments for re-application. The water/ starch gel-type cooling garment is presently preferred by the military, and can offer both satisfactory and long time cooling near 32°F (0 degree Celsius), but it can also feel very cold to the skin and needs a very cold freezer (5°F) to completely recharge or rejuvenate the garment. When completely charged, its gel-PCMs are somewhat rigid blocks, and the garment has limited breathability.

The other paraffin PCM garments are comparatively cheaper, but their plastic bladders can split, thus dripping their contents or leading to a serious fire hazard. In addition, their paraffin PCM melts about 65°F (18°C) and must be recharged at temperatures below 50°F (10°C) in a refrigerator or ice-chest. Their rate of cooling also reduces with time because paraffin blocks are thermal insulators and control the heat that can be transmitted into or out of them. The plastic bladders used to contain the PCM also strictly limit airflow and breathability of the garment, thus reducing their comfort.

Uses of PCM

Automotive textiles

The scientific theory of temperature control by PCMs has been deployed in various ways for the manufacturing of textiles. In summer, the temperature inside the passenger compartment of an automobile can increase significantly when the car is parked outside. In order to regulate the interior temperature while driving the car, many cars are equipped with air conditioning systems; though, providing adequate cooling capacity needs a lot of energy. Hence the application of Phase Change Material technology in various uses for the automotive interior could offer energy savings, as well as raising the thermal comfort of the car interior.

Apparel active wears

Active wear is expected to provide a thermal equilibrium between the heat produced by the body while performing a sport and the heat released into the environment. Normal active wear garments do not satisfy these needs always. The heat produced by the body in laborious activity is often not discharged into the environment in the required amount, thus resulting in thermal stress situation. On the other hand, in the periods of rest between activities, less heat is produced by the human body. Considering the same heat release, hypothermia is likely to occur. Application of PCM in clothing supports in regulating the thermal shocks, and thus, thermal stress to the wearer, and supports in increasing his/ her efficiency of work under high stress.

Lifestyle apparel – elegant fleece vests, men’s and women’s hats, gloves and rainwear.

Outdoor sports – apparel jackets and jacket linings, boots, golf shoes, running shoes, socks and ski and snowboard gloves.

From genuine uses in space suits and gloves, phase change materials are also used in consumer products.

Aerospace textiles

Phase Change Materials used in current consumer products primarily were made for application in space suits and gloves to protect astronauts from higher temperature fluctuations while performing extra-vehicular activities in space.

The usefulness of the insulation stems from micro encapsulated Phase Change Materials (micro-PCMs) primarily created to make warm the gloved hands of space-strolling astronauts. The materials were accepted ideal as a glove liner, to support during temperature extremes of the space environment.

Medical textiles

Textiles having Phase Change Materials (PCMs) could soon find uses in the medical sector. To raise the thermo-physical comfort of surgical clothing such as gowns, caps and gloves. In bedding products like mattress covers, sheers and blankets. A product, which helps the effort to stay the patient warm enough in an operation by giving insulation tailored to the body’s temperature.

Other uses of PCM

Phase Change Materials are at the moment being used in textiles, which include the extremities: gloves, boots, hats, etc. Various PCMs can be selected for various uses. For example the temperature of the skin near the torso is about 33°C (91°F). Though, the skin temperature of the feet is nearly 30 -31 °c. These PCM materials can be useful down to 16°C, enough to ensure the comfort of someone wearing a ski boot in the snow. They are increasingly applied in body-core protection and it will shift into the areas of blankets, sleeping bags, mattresses and mattress pads.

PCM Types

Standard phase change materials are generally a polymer/carrier filled with thermally conductive filler, which changes from a solid to a high-viscosity liquid (or semi-solid) state at a certain transition temperature. These materials conform well to irregular surfaces and possess wetting properties like thermal greases, which considerably decrease the contact resistance at the distinctive interfaces. Because of this composite structure, phase change materials are capable of surviving against mechanical forces during shock and vibration, safeguarding the die or component from mechanical damage. Moreover, the semi-solid state of these materials at high temperature determines issues linked to “pump-out” under thermo-mechanical flexure.

When heated to a targeted transition temperature, the material considerably softens to a near liquid-like physical state in which the thermally conductive material slightly expands in volume. This volumetric growth makes the more thermally conductive material to flow into and replace the microscopic air gaps existed in between the heat sink and electronic component. With the air gaps filled between the thermal surfaces, a high degree of wetting of the two surfaces lessens the contact resistance.

In general, there are two types of phase changes materials:

. Thermally conductive and electrically insulating.

. Electrically conductive.

The main dissimilarity between the thermally and electrically conductive materials is the film or carrier that the phase change polymer is coated with. With the electrically insulating material, lowest amount of voltage isolation properties can be achieved.

Analysis of the thermal barrier function of Phase Change Materials in textiles

Producers can now use PCMs to give thermal comfort in a huge range of garments. But to know how much and what kind of PCM to apply, as well as modification of the textile, in order to make a garment fit for its purpose, it is essential to quantify the effect of the active thermal barrier offered by these materials.

The total thermal capacity of the PCM in many products depends on its specific thermal capacity and its quantity. The required quantity can be expected by considering the application conditions, the desired thermal effect and its duration and the thermal capacity of the specific PCM. The structure of the carrier system and the end-use product also affects the thermal efficiency of the PCM, which has to be measured with respect to the material selection and the product design.

Prospect of PCM

The main challenge in developing textile PCM structure is the method of their use. Encapsulation of PCMs in a polymeric shell is an evident selection, but it adds stiff weight to the active material. Efficient encapsulation, core-to-wall ratio, out put of encapsulation, stability during application and incorporation of capsules onto fabric structure are some of the technological aspects being measured.

Though PCMs are being promoted in various types of apparel and connected products, the applications in which they can really work are limited. As superior test methods are developed for PCMs, makers of PCM materials and garments will have to further cautiously target the markets in which their products do work well.


Since a huge amount has been invested in research and development in these areas in the developed counties, it is expected that very soon all-season outfits will be mass-produced. For example, in Britain, scientists have designed an acrylic fibre by integrating microcapsules covering Phase Change Materials. These fibres have been used for producing lightweight all-season blankets.

Many garment making companies in USA are now producing many of such garments, like thermal underwear and socks for inner layer, knit shirt or coated fleece for insulating layer; and a jacket with PCM interlines for outer layer, beside helmets, other head gears and gloves. Such clothing can maintain warm and comfortable temperatures in the extreme of both weathers. There is no doubt that textile which integrate PCMs will find their way into several uses in the near future.

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Fertilizer Industry in India Contributes 25 Percent to GDP

Jul 12 2020 Published by under Uncategorized

India is basically an agricultural country which economy depends largely upon its agrarian produce. Agricultural sphere contributes about 25% to the country’s GDP. As a result, Indian fertilizer industry has tremendous scope in and outside the country as it is one of the allied parts of agriculture.

Today, Indian Fertilizer Industry is developing in terms of technology. Indian manufacturers are adopting advanced manufacturing processes to prepare innovative new products for Indian agriculture. India has entitled as the third largest producer and exporter of nitrogenous fertilizer.

Growth of Fertilizer Industry in India

Fertilizer industry in India is meeting all the requirements of agricultural industry since the time of its inception in 1906. The first plant for fertilizers manufacture was set up in the same year in Ranipet, Chennai. Then established the first two large-sized fertilizer plants, one was the Fertilizer & Chemicals Tranvancore of India Ltd. (FACT) in Cochin, Kerala, and the another one was Fertilizers Corporation of India (FCI) in Sindri, Bihar. These two were established as pedestal fertilizer units to have self sufficiency in the production of foodgrains. Afterwards, the industry gained impetus in its growth due to green revolution in late sixties, followed by seventies and eighties when fertilizer industry witnessed an incredible boom in the fertilizer production.

The tremendous demand of fertilizers has led the country to invest huge in the public, co-operative and in private sectors. At present, India has more than 57 large sized plants of fertilizers, manufacturing wide assortment of fertilizers including nitrogenous, phosphatic, Ammonium Sulphate (AS), Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) urea, DAP and complex fertilizers. Apart from it, there are other 64 small and medium scale Indian manufacturers producing fertilizers.

Here is the list of some public sector Indian fertilizer industries;

– Madras Fertilizers Limited

– National Fertilizers Limited

– Hindustan Fertilizer Corporation Limited

– Steel Authority Of India Limited

– Fertilizers & Chemicals Travancore Limited

– Rashtriya Chemicals &Fertilizers Limited

– Paradeep Phosphates Limited

– Pyrites, Phosphates & Chemicals Limited

– Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited

Some of the major private sector fertilizer companies in India are:

– Balaji Fertilizers Private Limited

– Ajay Farm-Chem Private Limited

– Chambal Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited

– Bharat Fertilizer Industries Limited

– Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizer Co. Limited

– Southern PetroChemical Industries Corporation Limited

– Godavari Fertilizers & Chemical Limited

– Shri Amba Fertilizers (I) Private Limited

– Gujarat State Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited

– Maharashtra Agro Industrial Development Corporation

– Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited

The speedy growth in the fertilizers production is swaying the Indian manufacturers to transform into Indian exporters, and helping them create a long lasting impression on global consumers.

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